runner

Aerobic and anaerobic exercise

Aerobic and anaerobic. There are a number of parameters in endurance sports that must be good in order to become proficient. An important part of it is to train aerobically and anaerobically.

Aerobic and anaerobic exercise

When we’re talking about aerobic and anaerobic exercise, it’s about our various energy systems. Both have pros and cons, anaerobic system is fast, but runs out quickly and is very inefficient. The aerobic has sluggish start and is slower but are able to work much longer. Whichever system is used, the goal is to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is the only source of energy that your muscles can use to perform the work.

These energy systems are like containers that have different sizes with different sized taps, which are constantly helping each other. The inertia of the aerobic system means that the anaerobic system always stands for energy at the beginning of a muscle action, even if the aerobic system could had managed it.

When we use a muscle we call it a muscle action and anaerobic action is a movement without access to oxygen, where the aerobic action the muscles have access to oxygen.

Now let us determine that we are starting to run.

For simplicity sake energy processes will be described one after another, but keep in mind that the processes are running chased together but as the work progresses distributed these systems in which one dominates most.

In the first stage, the smallest tub to be used with the largest faucet, where it is stored creatine phosphate. It’s a very quick energy, but that is no longer than 10 seconds at a exercise. The reason that creatine phosphate is so fast is that it only needs to be broken once for the ATP is regenerated.

Digestion of carbohydrates usually called carelessly translated into lactic acid system. And this system is a little larger container but less faucet. This process produces lactate, (which I describe little later). This process dominates from 10 seconds up to 2 minutes.

These two processes combined create an oxygen debt. (Which will be much larger in case of no warm up). As combustion system later must take care of. After between 90 seconds and 3 minutes, it is divided roughly 50/50 between the anaerobic system and the aerobic system. And the muscles go more than to burn carbohydrates instead of digesting them.

If we were to maintain a comfortable speed when we run then our combustion of carbohydrate to maintain the balance between the amount of energy consumed and that can be stored in. What often called “steady state”. Will we then hit a hill and we take the little extra it will make to lactic acid system to increase to cover the energy. The pulse is forced to go up and we get an oxygen debt again.

Energies

Our muscles can use mainly three energy resources to burn (oxidize): Carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Our carbohydrate stored in our muscles and our liver. A small portion is also in the blood in terms of blood sugar. We can influence how much carbohydrates stored in our muscles by working out in a way so that the muscles get bigger. (Hypertrophy). But it is important to know that in all sports is a certain optimum weight, because weight affects our performance. Well-trained people can store more carbohydrates than untrained, about 500 grams in the muscles and 200 grams in the liver, and therefore have a greater advantage in performance.

Our fat is stored all over our bodies. The body can store huge amounts of fat. The energy value of 10 kilograms of fat is about 90 000 kcal. But is a very unfavorable when it comes to being burned for energy.

When there is plenty of access to carbohydrates and fat, our protein combustion so small that it usually not is worth mentioning.

Lactate

You cannot write about aerobic and anaerobic exercise without mentioning lactate. Lactate is a molecule found in small amounts in the blood. It is a waste product of lactic acid system. (Lack of supply of oxygen). There is always a small amount of it in our blood, it is not until we come up on a noticeably out of breath level combustion system must be given more assistance by the anaerobic system and lactate increased. Lactate is a product when the lactic acid system decomposes. This happens very fast and divides into lactate and hydrogen. The hydrogen acidifies the environment in the muscle fiber, and the lactate is used as energy. (the hydrogens impact on the muscles are what the scientists believe is the main reason for muscle fatigue)  If we continue to increase the intensity our lactate level will eventually become so high that we have to turn off the pace, or finish the workout. This relationship where we are no longer able to maintain a low lactate levels is called the anaerobic threshold.

 

The anaerobic threshold can be changed, and it is important in endurance sports that this threshold is as close to the working heart rate that you have when you are competing. This is due to not wanting to create fatigue in the muscles too early, which in turn requires that you turn off the tempo, or may discontinue completely.

It is the ratio of aerobic and anaerobic exercise that causes us to resist fatigue in the muscles. And is therefore crucial for performing as good as possible.

The value of the aerobic system is also called condition between to pump blood around. At cardio training our heart grow while pumping function improved. The condition is most often measured in a lab where you control the breath and analyze how much oxygen the body has used and is measured in VO2max. It’s also doable to do a running test, to get a indication of your oxygen usage.

 

Utilization and work economic
Endurance’s technical term is called VO2max. Where V = volume O2 = oxygen. Thus, the volume of oxygen that the body can use. Depending on how far a training or competition is, you can change how much of the percentage of you VO2max. A normally trained person can just lie on their VO2max for 5-10 minutes, you then understand that it is advantageous to add at a lower intensity to cope with a longer training / competition, where better trained athletes may be at a much higher level without getting as tired. Although it is difficult to know at what speed is comparable with a VO2max value but if you think about it, it will take some training to a get reasonably track.

What is then knowledge if we cannot do anything useful out of it? It is an important point to understand that we have different values ​​depending on the sport we do. We cannot even compare our values ​​when we do crossfit when we run, not a swimmer and kayaker. The values ​​should be in the sport that you train for.

Summary

Aerobic and anaerobic is our energy and means with or without oxygen. These energy is that containers of different taps that contain different amounts of energy consumed at different rates. Oxygen debt is when our combustion system has not had time to kick-start the transport of oxygen to the working muscles. The carbohydrates are a much better molecule to create energy than fat is. We can increase the number of power plants (mitochondria) to help meet the energy needs by getting bigger muscles. But important to know we do not to want too big muscles. The ability of our body to resist generation of lactate is an important part to withstand fatigue. We train to have a good utilization of VO2max. Where we want it to be as high as possible while but not too high for the sake of running for a long time.

marathon

Principle of load and recovery

Load and recovery

We as a fitness coach strives to help those we train the best way to reach their goal. To become proficient in their sport requires a hard work for many years to reach the top and also a very big sacrifice to everything around you. All meaning with exercise is to get the body to be better able to withstand the load which we are putting it through. The load we put on the body should be as easy as it does not hurt us, but not so easy, so that there is no stimulation. What’s clever is that the more out of shape you are, the less you need to overload the body for it to respond to the training. Therefore, you do not have to hurry to put on a lot of weight too soon. It is often said that it is enough 60% of its maximum capacity when one is untrained, but when it comes to a little more trained people so it is closer to 80%. With this post I want to focus on the principle of load and recovery.

 

 

Compensation principle

When the body is loaded the body want to compensate for the load until the next time. When our body compensate for the exercise we get a super compensation.  We will always get this compensation if we stimulate our muscles enough.  What is important to know is that the harder we exercise the longer our recovery will be. But what is hard to know is how long we need to rest in order to pinpoint the next workout as close to the top of super compensation curve as possible. And unfortunately, there is no exact answer to when that time is, it is from person to person. It is  safe to say that you cannot train too hard for too long without resting. The reason for this is that instead of getting a positive outcome you will have a negative, and in the worst case, end up becoming less trained than they were initially.

 

 

Negative training

 

 

A good rule of thumb is that you should not work out extremely hard workouts per muscle group sooner than 72 hours. How many times you exercise per week is also playing course in the matter because when you practice three sessions or less so you do not think so much about what and how you train, while when coming up at 6 to 8 sessions a week you have to start having good eye on your recovery. When we look at training for women there is there actually a difference in how often you can train. That men have the ability to build stronger muscles is known to many.  But there is actually a side effect of the heavy lifting because it requires more recovery time. Women is recovering faster than men and can therefore do the next training session earlier.

 

 

 

 

recovery difference chart

The difference on the Recovery of men and women

 

 

The most affecting factor that influence our recovery time is our sleep, what we eat and later our fluid intake.

There was a study at a university in the US, where it was 11 basketball players who got to try out how it would be to sleep 2 hours more every night for a couple of weeks. They rose their sleeping time to 10 hours per night. They were tested with doing sprints and precision throws with balls before and after the test was performed. What they could report was that the result was a ten per cent increase in their performance, with only 2 hours of extra sleep they got 10 percent better performance! Which is an incredible result. What also happens when we sleep is that we release hormones and substances to “fix” that which we have broken down during exercise. And our different sleeping stages is helping in that process.

 

In second place comes the diet. Should you then weigh your food? Nah, we does not consider it necessary to weigh their food without having any good reason to do it, the reason we do so is that it is much easier to stand on the scale once a week, the same day and the same time. If the scale shows that you lost weight, depending on the workout you simply add one or two snacks until one has found a balance in your diet. Breakfast, lunch and dinner will be equal, and you only change how many snacks and how big they are. For runners is a good indication of how we allocate our diet of 50% carbohydrates, 25% meat / protein and 25% vegetables if you work under a training program. In other sports there may be a different relation. The substance we want to use our energy from when we run is carbohydrates. Fat on the other hand takes much longer to burn and is therefore unfavorable when it comes to performance. Those who can save the most on the carbohydrates have a better chance to do well in a competition. Those wo are more trained is using less proportion carbohydrate because of their lower pulse for the same load.

 

Another thing that is important to address is that if we have done a workout for 30 minutes at high intensity level, we have expended a lot of carbohydrates, after such a workout, we have a heightened normal pulse roughly one day forward, which means we burn more fat than carbohydrates. Therefore, it is important to eat something that contains carbohydrates with a high GI immediately after a session, so that you can quickly recover. But it is advantageous to once a week, not to eat anything until an hour after you are done with your training for the day due to muscle mitochondria will be developed and positioned better.

 

Water is our muscle lubricants. Correct fluid level in the body gets all the nutrients and waste products to flow at much faster rate. We consist of approximately 60% water and to only cut of a few percent have a negative result on our performance. The body can only absorb a certain amount of liquid, the guideline for the amount of water is 0.4-0.8 liters per hour. All that is over or that the body does not have time to take up is peed out. One can easily believe that the fluid level is good only for urine is light colored, but this can be a false indicator as it only needs to be a measure of that you have drunk too much in a short time.

 

Down jog keeps the blood flow going so that it fills the carbohydrate bearings 4 times faster than if you do not jog down, an important part in your recovery if you want to exercise the day after.

 

Remember that when you are at a high athletic level the performance is measured of a few percentage compared to stand on top of the podium or stand off the podium. And then it can be good to think through your recovery strategy regarding sleep and diet so that you have been as well prepared as possible for the performance you have in front of them.

 

Click here to read an article about sleep study of basketball players

running shoes

Running school and proper posture

Running is an easy exercise in that matter that just require a pair of shoes and the free nature. A plus is that it gives very good results. Something that we push very hard on is that we should run with the proper running technique. Follow along in this quick running school session.

One would think that it’s very easy to train running technique, but it is always difficult to change a technique that is already practiced. And it takes a very long time. But it is possible to change if you focus on what you do. Another important thing that we are press hard on is the right posture, because with wrong posture and running technique it can become a overload which in turns easy becomes an injury just because the run was performed wrong.

And we are training anyway for being able to continue to run for a long time, right? What then is the right posture, now let’s do an experiment. If you set yourself up with your arms straight down and close your eyes. feel that you are balancing on your feet. Find the neutral position where you neither tipping back or forward. Now imagine that you pull yourself up by the hair and open your eyes. And there you have it. The other thing that I wanted to talk about is how we put your feet into the ground when we run. What we want to achieve is to use our tendons as much as possible, so that we more or less bounce our selves forward, and not to burden our calves too much.  Another thing that tends to happen is that we land on the heels and that is very loading. When we land on the heels there a shock straight through the body’s joints that is not desireble. Instead, what we should consider is to put your foot down almost flat slightly on your toes. To use the advantage of the flexibility of the muscle. When we run, we keep your arms slightly bent close to the body and commute back and forth to get a comfortable posture.

How long steps should we take? long or short? There is a saying that the longer steps you got the faster you can run. It does not matter that much for a person that just started to enjoy running. Therefore we do not put so much emphasis on how long stepps you should have, the most important is that you feel comfortable.